Start Radioactive dating paper

Radioactive dating paper

By reduction of thorium tetrachloride with potassium, he isolated the metal and named it thorium after the Norse god of thunder and lightning Thor.

These are used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

Uranium and thorium also have diverse current or historical uses, and americium is used in the ionization chambers of most modern smoke detectors.

By 1944 an observation that curium failed to exhibit oxidation states above 4 (whereas its supposed 6th period homolog, platinum, can reach oxidation state of 6) prompted Glenn Seaborg to formulate a so-called "actinide hypothesis".

In 1962–1966, there were attempts in the United States to produce transplutonium isotopes using a series of six underground nuclear explosions.

Compared to the lanthanides, which (except for promethium) are found in nature in appreciable quantities, most actinides are rare.

The majority of them do not even occur in nature, and of those that do, only thorium and uranium do so in more than trace quantities.

Strictly speaking, both actinium and lawrencium have been labeled as group 3 elements, but both elements are often included in any general discussion of the chemistry of the actinide elements.